Rajasthan is India's largest state, with a total geographical area of about 343,000 square kilometres. The state is home to 69 million people of whom ten million live below the poverty line.

The state is overwhelmingly rural, with more than three-quarters of the population still residing in rural areas. The Aravalli mountain range runs from the south-west to the north-east of the state. To its west, lies the Thar Desert that covers over 60 percent of the state's total land area and leaves Rajasthan acutely deficient in water supply.

Agriculture continues to be largely dependent on rainfall, leaving the state highly vulnerable to drought-induced volatility. As a result, Rajasthan stands out among India’s low-income states.